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Curry of the Asian Continent

When people hear the word curry their minds automatically go to Indian food. There is literally a world of different types of curry out there though. In this article we’ll be traveling around Asia and seeing how the various regions within the continent and even some of the specific countries within those regions use curry. Yes, we will be touching on India as it is where curry powder originated from, but it will not be our sole focus.

Did you know that the word curry itself actually does not truly refer to anything? It is not a type of sauce; it is not a specific way to cook a meat or make a stew. Curry was just a way for people colonizing new regions to describe foreign fare and some places took on the term to make their food appear more fantastical.

Nevertheless, let us begin with discussing what curry powder is at its root. Curry powder began as a mixture of garlic, ginger and turmeric over 4000 years ago. Along the way new things where brought to the table such as the omnipresent chili pepper introduced by the Portuguese. Curry powder has grown up some and taken on different flavors. The Indian curry that most know of today is now more a mixture of coriander for its nutty yet fruity quality, turmeric for its beautiful yellow color, cumin for its warm earthiness, garam masala which is actually a spice blend all it’s own and is to Indian cooking what herbs de Provence is to French, and chili peppers for their heat.  Many other spices can also be found in a curry powder though depending on the recipe. There will be the original garlic and ginger but there may also be white turmeric, fennel seed, mustard seed, caraway seed, fenugreek, cinnamon, clove, green or black cardamom, nutmeg, curry leaf, black pepper, long pepper which is the dried fruit of a specific flowering vine or asafoetida also known as devil’s dung and comes from a plant that smells horrible and has a bitter taste but people use the juices of its roots to make a resin for a number of things including cooking. So see, curry itself is not anything truly specific as mentioned above but more a way to describe a different style of food.

Some of the spices in a curry also have health benefits so not only does it taste amazing but it may slightly help with health as well. Coriander for instance is good for upset stomachs, ginger is great for clearing sinuses and is good for cold and flu and helps with digestion, nausea and a host of other things, ginger is amazing on many levels, turmeric has anti-inflammatory properties, cinnamon is rich in antioxidants, reducing cholesterol and helping stabilize blood pressure.

In visiting worldometers.info it is found that there are five different regions to Asia and within those forty-eight different countries.

Central Asia is where we find the five smaller stans, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan. This region due to its heavily nomadic lifestyle does not have a curry to call its own. Here various types of pilafs are the main meal using horse meat or mutton which can be an adult sheep or a goat, in this region it is most generally goat.

Eastern Asia is the most popular when referencing anything Asian, it houses China, Japan, Mongolia and the Koreas. This is also where we find the territories of Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao which are all dependencies of China. A Chinese curry powder tends to include coriander, cumin, turmeric, ginger, fennel, cloves, pepper, fenugreek, chili and the sauce is of a coconut base. A Japanese curry powder tends to be a base of only four ingredients, turmeric, coriander, cumin and cardamom yet to add heat there may also be black or cayenne pepper; to give it an aromatic flare clove or fennel may be added and some powders have other spices as well such as cinnamon, star anise, allspice, cocoa powder or coffee powder just to name a few, one may even find hints of sage, oregano or bay leaf. A Japanese curry roux is a mixture of butter, curry powder, garam masala which also has many of the spices listed here and white pepper. A Japanese curry sauce tends to be thicker in texture and taste sweeter than those from Indian cuisine. A Japanese curry powder is also dark in color. Moving on to Korea where the curry powder changes yet again, while theirs has some of the various spices mentioned in this article it also tends to contain wheat flour, corn flour, onion and garlic powders and sugar. Mongolian cooking is heavily based on dairy, meats and animal fats so there is not a curry to call their own.

 20190907_175110

CandiAnne’s Japanese Curry For 2

1 teaspoon cooking oil of your choice, I prefer olive

1/2 yellow onion sliced thin

1/2-pound skinless, boneless chicken breasts cut into bite size pieces

1 carrot sliced thin

2 cups water

1 large potato cut into bite size pieces

1/2 small green apple peeled and pureed

1/4 teaspoon salt

1/2 teaspoon garam masala (the one I use is by McCormick and contains coriander, black pepper, cumin, cardamom and cinnamon)

 For the Roux

1 tablespoons butter

1/8 cup flour

1 tablespoons garam masala (the one I use is by McCormick and contains coriander, black pepper, cumin, cardamom and cinnamon)

1/2 teaspoon cayenne pepper

1/8 ground white pepper

1/2 tablespoon ketchup

1/2 tablespoon Worcestershire sauce

Step 1

Heat the oil in a large skillet over medium-high heat and add onions, sauté the onions until they are golden brown and caramelized, about 8 minutes then set aside.

Step 2

Add the chicken and fry until lightly browned on all sides about 10 minutes

Step 3

Return the onions to the pan, add the carrots and water, bring to a boil. Add the potato, apple, salt, and garam masala and simmer for about 30 minutes until potato and carrot are soft. Be sure to skim off any foam or oil that accumulates on the surface.

For the Roux

Melt butter in small skillet over medium low heat, add the flour and garam masala, whisk until you have a thick paste, whisk in cayenne and white pepper then whisk in ketchup and Worcestershire.

Step 4

When the vegetables are done and chicken is 165 degrees F internally, add 3/4 cup of liquid into the roux then whisk until it’s smooth. Pour this mixture back into meat and veggie pot and gently stir until thickened.

Serve over rice

 

South-Eastern Asia is where Indonesia, Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Malaysia, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore. Timor-Leste and Brunei are found. Indonesian curry powder consists of white cardamom pods, coriander, celery and cumin seeds, cinnamon sticks, cloves and chili powder so it has a sweet smoky taste with a tiny bit of heat. Vietnamese curry powder has the normal turmeric, cumin, coriander, etcetera of the other curry powders but in theirs mace, lemongrass, kaffir lime leaf, green pepper and cassia can also be found adding a citric touch. Burmese (Myanmar) curry is simply garlic, ginger and onion. Thailand and Laos both tend to use a red curry paste, this paste is very hot and uses red Thai chili peppers in addition to the normal spices one finds in a curry, it also has the addition of lemongrass and kaffir lime like the curry of Vietnam. The remaining countries in this region of Asia all use premade powders and pastes, some like the powder used in Singapore have many less chilis than the paste used in Thailand and Laos.

20190907_183541

CandiAnne’s Thai Red Chicken Curry For 2

1 teaspoon cooking oil of your choice, I prefer olive

1/2-pound skinless, boneless chicken breasts cut into bite size pieces

1 1/2 teaspoons Thai red curry paste

1/2 cup zucchini sliced thin

1/2 red bell pepper, seeded and sliced into strips

3 tablespoons carrots sliced thin

1/2 yellow onion sliced thin

1 1/2 teaspoons cornstarch

1/2 (14 ounce) can coconut milk

1 tablespoon fresh cilantro chopped

Step 1

Heat the oil in a large skillet over medium-high heat. Add the chicken pieces; cook and stir for about 10 minutes until chicken is well browned. Mix in the curry paste, zucchini, bell pepper, carrot and onion. Cook until vegetables are soft and chicken is 165 degrees F internally, about 8 more minutes

Step 2

Dissolve the cornstarch in the coconut milk, then pour into the skillet. Bring to a boil, then simmer over medium heat for 1 minute until sauce is well thickened. Right before serving, stir in the cilantro.

Southern Asia contains India, Bangladesh, Iran, Nepal. Sri Lanka, Bhutan, Maldives and the two big stans, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Bangladesh uses both a curry powder and a curry paste depending on the recipe they are working with. Iran tends to add saffron for a richer yellow color and a bit of sweetness. The Nepalese curry has all the spices we’ve come to know in this article and they are used with chicken primarily. Sri Lanka adds green cardamom seeds and black mustard to the normal coriander, cumin, etcetera mixture. Where in Bhutan, the curry itself is green cayenne, garlic and coriander but what’s interesting here is that they have a curry dish that is made from feta and contains no meat at all. In the Maldives, curries are very popular. One thing they do differently is that they will roast the spices on a hot dry pan before grinding them into a powder. This is something I have not read of being done anywhere else in Asia. In both Afghanistan and Pakistan it’s not so much about the spice as there are many curry powder combinations one can come across, see http://www.khanapakana.com/recipe-search/s/curry%20powder. Here it’s about what is inside, the Afghanis make a curry using kidney beans which isn’t what one normally thinks when they hear the word curry and the only typical curry spices in it are cumin and coriander.  Now then, India, the one country most everyone thinks of when they hear curry. The spices they use are typical, cumin, coriander, etcetera. The heat level is completely dependent on one’s taste buds and ability to handle the heat.

20190907_185645CandiAnne’s Murgh Kari (Indian Chicken Curry) for 2

1/2-pound skinless, boneless chicken breasts cut into bite size pieces

1/4 teaspoon salt

2 tablespoons cooking oil of your choice, I prefer olive

1/2 cup chopped red onion

1 teaspoon minced garlic

1/2 teaspoon minced fresh ginger root

1/4 teaspoon ground cumin

1/8 teaspoon ground turmeric

1/4 teaspoon ground coriander

1/2 teaspoon cayenne pepper

5 tablespoons water

1/2 (15 ounce) can crushed tomatoes

1/3 cup plain yogurt

2 teaspoon chopped fresh cilantro

1/2 teaspoon garam masala (the one I use is by McCormick and contains coriander, black pepper, cumin, cardamom and cinnamon)

1 teaspoon fresh lemon juice

Step 1

Sprinkle the chicken breasts with 1/8 teaspoon salt.

Step 2

Heat the oil in a large skillet over medium-high heat; cook and stir for about 10 minutes until completely browned. Transfer the browned chicken to a plate and set aside.

Step 3

Add the onion, garlic, and ginger to the oil remaining in the skillet and cook and stir until the onion turns translucent, about 5 minutes. Stir in the cumin, turmeric, coriander, cayenne, and 1 tablespoon of water into the onion mixture; allow to heat together for about 1 minute while stirring. Mix the tomatoes, yogurt, 1 teaspoon chopped cilantro, and 1/8 teaspoon salt into the mixture. Return the chicken to the skillet along with any juices on the plate. Pour remaining 4 tablespoons water into the mixture; bring to a boil, turning the chicken to coat with the sauce. Sprinkle the garam masala and 1 teaspoon cilantro over the chicken.

Step 4

Turn heat down to simmer-high for about 10 minutes. Cook until chicken is 165 degrees F internally. Sprinkle with lemon juice to serve.

Western Asia contains the most countries, which are Turkey, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Syria, Jordan, Azerbaijan, United Arab Emirates, Israel, Lebanon, State of Palestine, Oman, Kuwait, Georgia, Armenia, Qatar, Bahrain and Cyprus. Turkey uses the urfa biber pepper in their curry which has a dark purple black color and an “intriguing salty-sweet-smoky-sour flavor” per Food & Wine Magazine with a very low heat ratio around that of cayenne but builds as you eat it. In Yemen it’s about black peppercorns and saffron being added. United Arab Emirates here curry powder seems to be purchased as I could find no reference to a custom recipe all their own. I found a very intriguing Japanese curry powder that is sold in Dubai though at https://www.ggft.ae/sb-curry-powder where orange peel is one of the ingredients. Syria adds curry leaves. While searching the remainder of this region I found that much of their curry involves coconut and most places have curry restaurants instead of their own version.

As you can see curry is an idea, it is a set of spices that work well together to give a dish some definitive flare with sweetness, earthiness, and/or spice. It is all about what you make it and what you want it to be. So go forth and attack your spice cabinet, maybe try a new spice such as fenugreek or green cardamom that you have not tried before and maybe have never even heard of. Play with flavor, play with ideas, make your own combination of the spices you have read about here. Come up with your own take on curry but most important of all, have fun with this and keep cooking!!!

 

References:

https://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2351.html

https://justhungry.com/formula-making-japanese-curry-powder

https://mykoreankitchen.com/korean-curry-powder/

https://www.food.com/recipe/indonesian-island-style-curry-powder-322426

https://www.thespicery.com/vietnamese-curry-blend

https://www.pepperscale.com/malaysian-curry-powder/

https://www.angkorfood.com/herbs-and-spices/cambodian-curry-powder.html

https://www.food.com/recipe/singapore-style-curry-powder-322425

https://www.theflavorbender.com/sri-lankan-roasted-curry-powder/

https://www.food.com/recipe/bhutanese-cheese-curry-ema-daji-305916

https://chilliesandlime.blogspot.com/2009/07/maldivian-roasted-curry-powder.html

http://www.khanapakana.com/recipe-search/s/curry%20powder

https://foodsofnations.com/?product=curry-powder-bengal

https://chilliesandlime.blogspot.com/2009/07/maldivian-roasted-curry-powder.html

https://www.plated.com/morsel/9-essential-spices-youll-need-successful-indian-dishes/

https://www.worldspice.com/blends/curry-turkish

https://www.foodandwine.com/blogs/everything-you-need-know-about-urfa-biber-miracle-spice-youre-missing-out

https://www.alimentarium.org/en/magazine/infographics/scoville-scale

https://www.food.com/recipe/iraqi-curry-powder-442889

http://arabicbites.blogspot.com/2007/09/homemade-curry-powder.html

https://www.spice-mixes.com/hawaij.html

https://www.urbanrajah.com/how-to-make-Indian-curry/syrian-christian-curry

https://spice-topia.com/shop/page/12/

https://www.ggft.ae/sb-curry-powder

https://shopee.com.my/Jordan’s-Curry-Powder-Meat-Curry-Powder-Spicy-20g-X-5-Sachets-i.132823383.2004547699

https://www.urbanrajah.com/how-to-make-Indian-curry/syrian-christian-curry

https://wholespice.com/blog/hawaj-the-curry-of-yemen/

https://www.food.com/recipe/iraqi-curry-powder-442889

http://arabicbites.blogspot.com/2007/09/homemade-curry-powder.html

https://www.foodandwine.com/blogs/everything-you-need-know-about-urfa-biber-miracle-spice-youre-missing-out

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Urfa_biber

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scoville_scale

https://www.alimentarium.org/en/magazine/infographics/scoville-scale

https://www.worldspice.com/blends/curry-turkish

https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/11-proven-benefits-of-ginger#section1

https://www.plated.com/morsel/9-essential-spices-youll-need-successful-indian-dishes/

https://chilliesandlime.blogspot.com/2009/07/maldivian-roasted-curry-powder.html

https://wwrnepal.wordpress.com/raising-money/nepalese-curry-recipe/

https://www.thecuriouschickpea.com/afghan-kidney-bean-curry/

https://foodsofnations.com/?product=curry-powder-bengal

http://www.khanapakana.com/recipe-search/s/curry%20powder

https://www.food.com/recipe/bhutanese-cheese-curry-ema-daji-305916

https://www.theflavorbender.com/sri-lankan-roasted-curry-powder/

http://cookmap.com/en/recipes/iranian-style-curry

https://www.pepperscale.com/malaysian-curry-powder/

https://www.angkorfood.com/herbs-and-spices/cambodian-curry-powder.html

https://cookandsavor.com/burmese-curry/

https://www.thespicery.com/vietnamese-curry-blend

http://www.filipino-food-lovers.com/tag/curry-powder/

https://www.food.com/recipe/indonesian-island-style-curry-powder-322426

https://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2351.html

https://justhungry.com/formula-making-japanese-curry-powder

https://mykoreankitchen.com/korean-curry-powder/

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asian_cuisine#Central_Asian_cuisine

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Curry_powder

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Wild South Carolina

I was asked to write an article about wild herbs in my area of South Carolina. With the Carolinas humid subtropical climate many amazing things grow wild here but as I am new to South Carolina, only having moved here in May and not a horticulturist or an herbalist I couldn’t seem to find what is out there. I grabbed my phone and Google Lens and headed out on a couple nature adventures which were awesome because I love hiking but Google Lens gave me a few options for everything I was looking at and some were so very similar that I couldn’t be a hundred and ten percent certain if I was looking at something good or something that could cause harm, plants and not knowing about them are tricky like that. I contacted friends from the area to go on my hikes with me but their lives didn’t have any free time.

I do have a tree to tell you about and a great recipe you can use with the fruit from that tree in the spring but first let’s discuss some of the great things you can find growing wild in South Carolina so you can find a horticulture expert or an herbalist and head out on your own hike to find these things.

Before we get to the trees though, let’s spend a few minutes going over the other deliciousness that can be found growing wild in this beautiful state.

Chickweed can be eaten raw or cooked the same way you would cook your other leafy greens. When looking at the nutritional value of chickweed, it’s very similar to spinach with vitamins A, B complex, C, D, calcium, potassium and more. It likes growing in yards so before you get happy mowing, you may want to check if any of this yummy green is growing wild.

Small’s Purslane is a lot like chickweed in its nutritional value being high in both vitamins A and C and is much akin to spinach when eaten raw but when cooked it has a texture similar to that of cooked okra. While purslane can be found in gardens and barnyards, it actually prefers greatly disturbed areas like sidewalk cracks and can often be found in the more run down areas of cities.

Wintercress should only be eaten if grown in a garden or found far from streets as it readily absorbs toxins and contaminates. When eaten raw as part of a salad it adds a cool nippy flavor and is also rich in Vitamin C.

South Carolina also has wild fruits. Muscadines are a favorite, they look and taste similar to but are slightly more tart than grapes and come in both green and dark purple varieties. They are used in wines and I personally eat them raw, I have put them in ice cream and made jam.

Cranberries can be found in the wild as well, housed by marshes and bogs. These can be eaten, cooked and juiced the same way you would a store bought cranberry.

Partridge Berries (teaberries) can be found on their shrub in the forest and eaten raw. The shrub’s leaves and branches can be seeped for tea. All the parts have a nice mint flavor.

Now for the various trees with edible parts, including the one I told you about at the beginning of this article.

Persimmon trees grow fruit high in Vitamin C that has a creamy texture and a slight tangy flavor. The fruit can be eaten raw or used how you would other berries, in jams, desserts and so forth.

Sassafras grows here and it grows tall!! It can reach thirty to forty feet. WOW!! Sassafras is very fragrant in both its leaves and bark. The bark, leaves and root husk are all used in teas and the leaves can give soups a spicy flavor. This is something to use very sparingly though as high concentrations and extended use may cause some health issues.

If you like nuts, South Carolina has you covered. We have two types of hickory tree, one for the dry hillsides (Mockernut) and one for the moist lowlands (Shagbark), both have a sweet nut similar to a walnut.

Chestnut, which like hickory, is in the walnut family and can be found in dry forests. Chestnuts are good raw but can also be cooked up by roasting, grilling or boiling.

The tree you’ve been waiting to hear about is the Mulberry. The “berry” from this tree looks a lot like a blackberry but it’s not actually a berry. The mulberry is long and oval and depending on the tree can range from nearly tasteless to quite tart. The unopened leaves from the tree itself provide a very mild flavor when boiled. This past spring when the trees were in bloom, I seemed to always find the tart offerings so I used them in sweeter items such as muffins, jam, ice cream and pancakes. Here is my recipe for Mulberry Ice Cream, no ice cream maker needed.

3 eggs

2 egg yolks

1 tsp extract of your choosing (I tend to use vanilla or almond, you may want to use a berry flavored for this)

16 oz heavy cream

1 cup sugar

Your berries

Put eggs, yolks, extract and sugar in top of double boiler with simmering water beneath and beat 6-8 minutes with a handheld mixer until it’s thick and creamy. Remove from heat and let cool.

While it’s cooling, beat heavy cream until stiff peaks form.

Fold the egg mixture into whipped cream then fold in fruit.

Put in a freezer safe container and freeze 6 hours minimum.

References:

Mulberry Photo

Jo L – we discussed the various plants and trees on our street. We have a mulberry in our shared driveway but it’s not presently in bloom.

Joe T. – we discussed the list of wild things and where in the area I could go on nature walks in an attempt to find some of the items listed there. We also discussed things not listed, such as poke salad. I didn’t discuss poke salad because once the leaves turn color, it is actually poisonous.